N-Heptane can be manufactured through several processes, including crude oil refining and fractional distillation.
Refining: Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons, including n-heptane, which can be separated from other components through refining processes such as distillation, cracking, and hydrotreating.
Fractional distillation: N-Heptane can be isolated from a mixture of hydrocarbons through fractional distillation, which separates components based on their boiling points. The process involves heating the mixture in a distillation column and collecting the fraction with a boiling point range of 90-110°C, which corresponds to n-heptane.
Isomerization: N-Heptane isomers, such as 2-methylhexane and 3-methylhexane, can be produced through isomerization processes. The process involves converting straight-chain hydrocarbons into branched-chain isomers through catalytic reactions.
Alkylation: N-Heptane can be synthesized through the alkylation of butene with ethylene, followed by hydrogenation of the resulting product. This method is less common than the previous ones.