N-Heptane can be manufactured through several processes, including crude oil refining and fractional distillation.
Refining: Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons, including n-heptane, which can be separated from other components through refining processes such as distillation, cracking, and hydrotreating.
Fractional distillation: N-Heptane can be isolated from a mixture of hydrocarbons through fractional distillation, which separates components based on their boiling points. The process involves heating the mixture in a distillation column and collecting the fraction with a boiling point range of 90-110°C, which corresponds to n-heptane.
Isomerization: N-Heptane isomers, such as 2-methylhexane and 3-methylhexane, can be produced through isomerization processes. The process involves converting straight-chain hydrocarbons into branched-chain isomers through catalytic reactions.
Alkylation: N-Heptane can be synthesized through the alkylation of butene with ethylene, followed by hydrogenation of the resulting product. This method is less common than the previous ones.
Molecular weight: 100.2 g/mol
Boiling point: 98.4°C (209°F)
Melting point: -91.7°C (-133.1°F)
Density: 0.683 g/cm3 at 20°C (68°F)
Viscosity: 0.36 cP at 25°C (77°F)
Flash point: -4°C (25°F)
Autoignition temperature: 215°C (419°F)
- Insoluble in water, but soluble in common organic solvents such as ethanol, diethyl ether, and chloroform.
- n-heptane is a straight-chain alkane consisting of seven carbon atoms and 16 hydrogen atoms bonded together by single covalent bonds.
- n-heptane is a relatively inert compound with low chemical reactivity due to the strength of its C-C and C-H bonds. It is relatively unreactive towards acids, bases, and oxidizing agents.
- n-heptane is highly flammable and burns readily in air, producing carbon dioxide and water vapor.
- n-heptane is a hydrophobic compound, meaning it does not dissolve in water due to its nonpolar nature.
- n-heptane is a stable compound under normal conditions, but can react with strong oxidizing agents to form peroxides, which can be explosive.
- n-heptane has six isomers, including 2-methylhexane, 3-methylhexane, 2,2-dimethylpentane, 2,3-dimethylpentane, 2,4-dimethylpentane, and 3,3-dimethylpentane.
EXTRACTION OF VARIOUS COMPOUNDS FROM PLANT AND ANIMAL MATERIALS:
- The nonpolar nature of n-heptane makes it useful in selectively dissolving the nonpolar oils and leaving behind other components.
- N-Heptane is used in the extraction of flavor and fragrance compounds from plant materials, such as citrus peels or lavender flowers.
- Pesticides and herbicides are extracted from environmental materials like soil or water using n-hexane. Due to n-low heptane’s polarity, nonpolar molecules can be selectively extracted and studied for use in environmental monitoring.
- N-Heptane is used as a solvent in the synthesis of polymers, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.
- Metal-catalyzed hydrogenation and oxidation processes, among other reactions, require n-heptane as a solvent for ligands and catalysts.
- N-Heptane is used as a cleaning solvent in the electronics industry to remove flux residues, oils, and other contaminants from printed circuit boards and other electronic components.
- Textiles can be dry cleaned with n-heptane, which is especially useful for fragile fabrics that cannot be cleaned using water-based solvents.
- To clean oils and other impurities from laboratory glassware that can affect studies, n-hexane is employed as a solvent.
- To make gasoline blends with particular features, such as greater fuel efficiency, decreased emissions, and increased stability, N-heptane is blended with other hydrocarbons, such as iso-octane and aromatic compounds.
- N-Heptane is used as a reference compound for measuring the octane rating of gasoline.
- In the petrochemical industry, n-heptane is employed as a solvent for hydrocarbons, oils, and other organic substances. The extraction of aromatics and other valuable compounds from crude oil and other petroleum products makes it particularly useful.
- When rubber is vulcanised, n-heptane is utilised as a solvent. To increase the rubber’s tensile strength, durability, and other qualities, vulcanization involves heating the rubber with sulphur or other cross-linking agents.
- N-Heptane is used in rubber testing to measure the hardness, abrasion resistance, and other properties of various rubber compounds.
- Use in well-ventilated areas: N-Heptane should only be used in well-ventilated areas with adequate airflow to prevent the buildup of flammable vapors.
- Use appropriate personal protective equipment: When handling n-heptane, appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn, including gloves, eye protection, and a lab coat.
- Keep away from sources of ignition: N-Heptane should be kept away from sources of ignition, such as flames, sparks, and heat sources.
- Store properly: N-Heptane should be stored in a cool, dry place in a tightly sealed container away from sources of heat and ignition.
- Handle with care: N-Heptane should be handled with care to avoid spills or splashes. In case of a spill or leak, absorb the liquid with appropriate absorbents and dispose of them properly.
- Do not ingest: N-Heptane should not be ingested or inhaled, as it can be harmful or even fatal. In case of ingestion or inhalation, seek medical attention immediately.