DI METHYL FORMAMIDE (DMF) – C3H7NO
Dimethylformamide (DMF) is manufactured through a process known as carbonylation, which involves the reaction of monomethylamine (MMA) with carbon monoxide (CO) in the presence of a metal catalyst. The reaction occurs according to the following equation:
MMA + CO → DMF + H2O
The reaction is typically carried out in a reactor at high pressure and high temperature, with a metal catalyst such as nickel or rhodium. The reaction mixture is then cooled, and the resulting DMF is separated from the catalyst and other by-products by distillation.
Odor: characteristic odor
Molecular weight: 73.09 g/mol
Boiling point: 153-154 °C
Freezing point: -63 °C
Density: 0.93 g/mL
Viscosity: 2.5 cP (at 20°C)
Refractive index: 1.4411 (at 20°C)
- DMF is soluble in water, alcohols, and many organic solvents.
- DMF is a highly polar solvent, making it useful for dissolving polar substances such as inorganic salts and certain organic compounds and used in various industries like pharmaceutical, acrylic fibres, petrochemical, pesticides etc.
- DMF can react with strong acids and strong bases to form salts, but it is relatively stable towards most other reagents.
- Acid-Base Properties: DMF is a weak base and can react with strong acids to form salts.
- DMF is an important solvent in the petrochemical industry due to its versatility, high solvency power, and ability to enhance processing performance.
- Dimethylformamide (DMF) is a solvent widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of a wide range of drug substances and intermediates.
- Its ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds and its low volatility, makes DMF a suitable for use in high-temperature reactions
PRODUCTION OF ACRYLIC FIBERS:
- DMF is used as a solvent in the polymer industry to produce polyacrylonitrile (PAN), a precursor to carbon fibre. PAN fibres are made by spinning a PAN solution in DMF, which is then treated at high temperatures to form the final carbon fibre product.
- DMF is used as a solvent in the production of acrylic fibres
PRINTING & DYEING :
- DMF is used in printing as a solvent for printing inks as well as a dye carrier. It aids in the even distribution of the dye on the substrate, and its high solubility enables the production of high-quality prints with sharp images and vibrant colours.
USES IN PESTICIDES:
- As a solvent, DMF aids in the dissolution of active ingredients in pesticide formulations
- It is used as a solvent for synthetic fibers, especially polyacrylonitrile, which is the precursor to carbon fiber.
- DMF is also used in the production of polyurethane foam and as a blowing agent for polymer foam production, both of which are commonly used in the textile industry for cushioning and insulation.
- When handling DMF, it is important to wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as gloves, safety goggles, and a respirator or face mask.
- DMF has a strong odor, and inhaling its vapors can cause health effects such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. It is important to work in a well-ventilated area or use local exhaust ventilation to minimize exposure to the vapor.
- DMF should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area, away from sources of heat and ignition. It should be kept in a tightly sealed container to prevent evaporation and potential exposure to the vapor.
- In case of a spill or leak, it is important to contain the spill and prevent it from spreading. DMF can be slippery, so it is important to wear slip-resistant shoes.
- DMF is flammable, and it can ignite easily. It should be kept away from heat sources and open flames. In case of a fire, use water, foam, or a dry chemical extinguisher to put out the fire.
- DMF should be disposed of properly in accordance with local, state, and federal regulations. Contact your local waste management facility for information on how to properly dispose of DMF.